Net Neutrality Threatened by Trump Administration

Tom Wheeler, the former chair of the FCC, used his final speech before stepping down to warn businesses and consumers that their choice of cloud services and business applications could be severely limited if the incoming administration strikes down the 2015 open internet order that he and his group put in place. This order positioned the FCC’s net neutrality regulation that prevents Internet Service Providers from slowing or blocking traffic on their networks. This gives all traffic equal opportunity and speed and prevents network favoritism.

Wheeler also showed concern for the Internet of Things, an area of economic growth that is quickly becoming top of mind to many businesses and policy makers in Washington.

“[T]he growth of the internet of things is another area that depends on the open connectivity of those things,” Wheeler said. “If ISPs can decide arbitrarily which IoT device can be connected, or favor their own IoT activity over their competitors, the bright future of IoT dims.” Wheeler continued, “As everything goes into the cloud, the ability to access the cloud free of gatekeepers is essential. If ISPs get to choose which applications and clouds work better than others in terms of access, speed and latency, they will control the cloud future,”.

Wheeler’s position may not be a surprise now but given his past as a lobbyist for the cable and wireless sector his support of net neutrality may come as a shock.

Bill Wilson, a consultant for Broadband Landing, said, “Wheeler may be underplaying the seriousness of the situation. Net Neutrality is the biggest deal that no one really understands. If consumers and small businesses actually realized what the internet would look like after it was bought and sold by large corporations that was be worried. This would be all that was being talked about.”

Wheeler has the same question many businesses do, namely will Trump dismantle a policy that is clearly working? With republicans openly opposed to net neutrality things do seem dire for the policy.

Wheeler’s speech not only acts as a warning to the incoming administration but also clearly attempts to widen the scope of the net neutrality debate as a whole. Consumer impact of the open internet order is almost always the lead in any discussion of net neutrality but here Wheeler’s focus was on the danger to businesses and their increasing use of cloud computing. Interruption or the slowing of these services is a bit more destructive than a video playing slow. Businesses might be required to completely change back office management systems. A company like Salesforce.com could have their customer base divided between users that have an ISP that allows their traffic and ISP’s that won’t. Situations of this type could be repeated across many business services. If AT&T buys a firm that provides CMS to sales and marketing groups, it is not unthinkable that they would show preference to this firm over others.

Wheeler specifically calls out Verizon and AT&T for the “zero rating” programs that give some companies free access by not charging customers for the data they use. While this isn’t the feared “Fast Lane” net neutrality has been trying to avoid, it may actually be worse.

Wheeler finished his speech with, “It now falls to a new set of regulators, to a new FCC and to those who advocate before it and the Congress to determine the road that they want to take from here,” Wheeler said. “We are at a fork in that road. One path leads forward and the other leads back to relitigating solutions that are demonstrably working.”
While the fork in the road analogy fits, it’s actually a bit more drastic than Wheeler makes it seem. One road leads forward and the other leads back a decade and then off a cliff into a hole filled with alligators.

For more information about the largest high speed Internet providers in the United States, you can visit at http://broadbandlanding.com/providers/

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Authors Share Insight And Secrets Through Audio Podcasts

Audio Podcasts are rapidly expanding as effective communication tools, where individuals in various sectors utilize them efficiently for numerous tasks. One key area where audio podcasts have gained renewed popularity is the reading world or the book world, where many authors and fans share a wealth of knowledge and information through audio podcasts via the internet.

Thousands of websites offer free podcast services to authors and fans alike, where they can reach a very large audience who regularly listen to their podcasts on demand. The best thing about audio podcasting is you can reach out to an exclusive listener base, as people can choose what they listen to at their convenience.

Today, many authors are showing a trend towards exclusive podcast broadcasting for not just marketing their publications, but also to share various insights, experiences and secrets in their writing careers, as well as on other general topics of choice and interest.

Numerous websites host audio podcasts of renowned authors providing great information sources for very high quality online book clubs. Many authors claim they have experienced rapid growths in their fan base thanks to these audio podcasts that reach a broader spectrum of their fan base.

Authors also declare they have built much better relationships with their fans thanks to audio podcasting. They say that podcasts offer a chance to communicate immediately with a large audience as and when they feel the requirement for sharing valuable information, ideas and thoughts, as well as to make important notices. There are no delays in terms of creating, publishing, accessing and broadcasting these audio feeds, as you can do it at your office, home or even in the convenience of traveling.

Authors use audio podcast technology in numerous ways to communicate to their audience. Some methods include:

· Reading excerpts of their publications
· Publishing Audio-books: audio-books delivered as a serialized podcast
· Conducting talk shows
· Hosting book club discussions
· Making important notices about their publications / careers (e.g. release of a book and it’s content)
· Delivering tutorials in their area of expertise
· Promoting and advertising their latest publications
· Sharing useful guidelines on writing and related topics with other authors and interested parties
· Sharing reviews about their publications

The areas where podcasts can be utilized by authors and others alike are limitless. With a little creativity, authors can utilize audio podcasting technology to their maximum benefit. Restrictions in the way of technical drawbacks are very minimum, one reason for the growing popularity of this very much user-friendly broadcasting method.

Internet Marketing Consultancy Services – Your Ready Marketing Help

In the past few years there have been several changes in the virtual market place. People turn to internet to find the products and services of their choice. You need a well designed web site to do any business. If you are looking for an improvement of your business by creating a web presence, you can hire the internet marketing and consultancy services for specialized expertise in web development and for long term benefits. It is very important for you to find and make an investment in internet marketing and consultancy services that can provide custom made services to meet your business needs.

The expert advice and assistance of a consultant is necessary right from day one for the success of your business. The internet marketing and consultancy services will find out where the power of the company resides and create a niche market for it. A professional marketing consultant will first analyze the existing internet marketing skills, identify strengths and weaknesses of the business and then finally prepare a plan for strengthening the marketing skills especially in areas where improvements are required.

The internet marketing consultant will contact the clients of the business who vary with each other in the level of knowledge about internet marketing and business. Internet marketing and consultancy services also offer guidance on basic business matters and internet marketing concepts. The internet marketing consultants provide services relating to research, internet marketing management and planning of marketing campaigns.

Internet marketing consultants normally offer full-service consultations or target on particular internet marketing areas in the field of their expertise. Some of the areas in which internet marketing consultants offer their services include market research, search engine optimization, marketing plans, viral marketing, email marketing, pay-per-click campaign, link campaign, media campaign, web hosting, website development, preparation of business plans, newsletter publishing, ezine advertising, expert articles, copy writing, training & education, internet marketing books publication and coaching services.

An overall marketing strategy, with the help of specialized consultancy services having low overheads, will save your money and build your business. Even a minor improvement effected by the internet marketing and consultancy services can impact a huge difference in the profits and make you to dominate the market.

The History Of The Harlequin Romance Novel

Romance novels have long been associated with a guilty pleasure – covertly enjoyed by women who hide behind their sunglasses on the beach or under the covers on a lazy weekend afternoon. Novels such as these glorify the fantasy of falling in love – elevating the “knight in shining armor” to a level of grandeur never to be experienced by mortal men; bulging biceps, mysterious eyes, and desirable lips – the men of the romance novel are entrusted to sweep the heroine of the book off of her proverbial feet; and in so doing, sweep the masses of women who cling to every word in an attempt to escape reality – off of their feet as well. The romance novel is just that – an escape; and no one provides a portal for better escape than the Harlequin romance novel.

Interestingly enough, the Harlequin romance novel began with a man; not a tall, dark stranger of the novel’s pages, but a Canadian businessman eager to break into publishing. Harlequin was founded in 1949 by Richard Bonnycastle and immediately set about publishing books in a wide array of genres popular in the day – such as mysteries and Westerns. It was not until the late 1950s, when Harlequin acquired Mills & Boon – a British romance publisher – that Harlequin made its first foray into the romance novel industry. But by the mid-1960s Harlequin had made a decision to focus solely on the publication of the Harlequin romance fiction novel – based on the enormous popularity of the books (and a not-so-gentle nudging from Bonnycastle’s wife Mary).

Differentiating itself further in the market, Harlequin shunned traditional marketing, and opted instead to reach its audience through a non-traditional sales approach. It is for this reason that the Harlequin romance novel can most often be found for sale in drugstores and grocery stores – at the time, frequent haunts of women who were the prime audience for Harlequin.

Just as popular as the fiction itself, Harlequin romance cover art holds its own appeal for fictional romance enthusiasts. The visual of the brawny hero and his damsel in distress has become synonymous with the Harlequin brand; in fact, collectors eagerly seek out vintage Harlequin cover art in a nod to the birth of a brand. While the Harlequin novel covers have gradually changed throughout the years to reflect a more modern audience, the cover art is still just as meticulously created as it was at its inception.

The company’s entrance into the online market in 1996 brought the Harlequin brand to the next level, allowing readers to check in with their favorite series and authors. Taking it one step further, Harlequin launched eharlequin.com in 2000 offering an online library where readers can read and shop at their own leisure.

Today, Harlequin remains the largest publisher of romance novel series – publishing over 500 new titles every month – in 25 languages – and with distribution in every major market around the world. The company also encompasses the work of nearly 1,500 fictional romance authors.

3 Steps to Gaining Book Publicity for Independent Publishers

Self-publishing a book might be a hard nut to crack but it is not impossible. It requires a lot of time and effort on your part, but then, doesn’t everything successful does? Whether you take the traditional route to publishing or decide to self-publish a book, marketing and book publicity is in your hands. It doesn’t get any easier either way for aspiring authors, but self-publishing offers more pros than cons, provided you are dedicated to make it up the success ladder.

Let’s find out how to gain publicity for your book as an independent publisher:

1. Find Your Audience

You’ve written a book, great. Have you found your audience or has it found your book to give it the air it needs? Most first time authors feel dejected because of low sales or not being able to attract the right audience for their books. The question is: are you targeting the right audience at the right place? Today, social media plays a big role in marketing and publicity and you should choose the right channels to market your book and find out where your target audience resides in the online world, to get their attention.

2. Strategize your Online Publicity Campaign

Online publicity has evolved lot more than what it was a couple of years ago. Today, you need to engage your audience, which can be particularly critical when you are just starting out. Map out your online publicity campaign and make sure you follow it through. A few posts on a few social media channels will not do the job. Pitch for reviews, offer giveaways, and hand out free book samples and guest book blogs at other sites.

Remember that it’s a long road but not one that you can’t travel. Once at the end of your journey, you will realize how much you have learned, and find better ways to market your subsequent books.

3.Get Connected

As you are starting out, you may want to balance your professional and personal character. The idea is that you also need to get connected to your audience and prospective readers on a personal level. Be available and share your personal thoughts on your social media channels. When readers feel that a new author cares for his readers, it is more likely that they will be interested in reading your work. Many online book publishing companies help self-publishers to publish and design their books using their free tools.

If you aspire to become an author and earn fame, remember that it’s a lonely road to the top, but one that you shouldn’t mind taking. Book publicity is critical to selling your book, and when selecting an online publisher, you must choose carefully. For instance, check out instantpublisher.com. They help their authors by listing the first 20 pages of their book on a website, which is frequently visited by publishing companies and book brokers. Who knows you might just land a deal?

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8960306

Book Publicity – How to Create an Online Media Kit

In your author and book publicity activities, it’s critical to make it easy for journalists, talk show producers and other influencers to quickly find everything they need to know about you and your book. One of the best ways to do that is to create a page for the media on your website and blog.

Online author and book publicity pages are called by several names, including media room, media kit, press room or press kit, or they are simply labeled as Media or Press on the site’s navigation menu. On some sites, the media page is accessed through a link from the About page of the site. Whatever you call your book publicity page, just make sure it’s clearly marked and easy to find from any page on your site.

Remember, your media page isn’t just for the media – it’s a great place to showcase your credentials and biographic information for a variety of author and book publicity purposes. For example, you can link to your media page when introducing yourself to bloggers, potential clients and potential partners.

Sandra Beckwith, a former award-winning publicist who now teaches authors how to generate media attention, advises imagining what questions journalists would ask about you and your book and making sure they can find the answers to those questions in your media room. “You want to make sure you’re providing the information they want in a format they’re familiar with,” she says. “That means you want to present that information in a factual way without hyperbole or exaggeration.”

Here are some of the most important elements to include on your book publicity page:

• About the Author – You might create two bios, a short one of about three sentences (imagine a radio announcer introducing you) and another bio about half a page long.

• About the Book – Summary of your book, written in a news style without marketing hype.

• Praise/Endorsements/Reviews – Feature any celebrity quotes prominently.

• Awards – Book awards and awards received by the author.

• Author Photos – High resolution version for print and low resolution for online use. Include a caption beneath your photo listing your credentials or author tagline.

• Book Covers – High resolution for print and low resolution for online use.

• Contact Information – Make this easy to find, include email address, phone number, and address if applicable.

Other elements commonly found on author and book publicity pages include:

• Complete Press Kit – One page or document containing all of your media information in one place.

• In the Media – Provide links to previous media coverage that you’ve received. If you have appeared in any major print or broadcast media, include their logos prominently on your media page.

• Audio and/or Video Clips – Short audio or video clips of you (preferably being interviewed) allow potential interviewers to hear or see you in action.

• Interview Topics – A list of topics you can speak about.

• Sample Q & A – Radio stations, in particular, will appreciate using questions you provide for an interview

• Article Topics – A list of topics you can write about and/or suggested angles for feature stories about you. You might even provide pre-written stories or tips for the media to use.

• Fact Sheet – One-page document with pertinent facts about your industry or book topic.

• Press Releases – Links to online versions of press releases about you, your book or business.

• Media References – Nice quotes from media who have interviewed you or worked with you.

• Clients Include – If you’re a consultant, you might want to post a list of important clients (with their permission) and a few testimonial quotes from clients.

Many online book publicity pages contain downloadable documents in PDF format, but Sandra Beckwith advises just putting the text of your media materials on a web page and letting people copy and paste from there. Even when it’s convenient to copy or download your book publicity materials from your website, some people will still want you to email information to them or even send a printed media kit.

Your online author publicity page is a great promotional tool. If you don’t already have a media page on your site, get started now – you can always add to it over time. If you do have a media page, now is a good time to review and enhance it.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/4119207

Books & Publication Classifieds Aids To Stretching Out A Hand Towards Education

Reading is the best habit one can cultivate. It is not just to kill time but it also imparts knowledge in you. Many people just don’t read because the books they wish to buy are very expensive or are not available at a store near them. To bring them out of this, many stores and independent online bookshops have come up with the idea of books & publication classifieds.

This is to guide the onlookers where to find book shops, academic books, and business reading books and even from where to buy second hand books. This is because of the increasing need of stretching out a hand towards education. Education is not necessarily a virtue of schools and colleges, many people learn from fiction as well and there are many great authors who have taught many through their self help books.

The information of ail the book shops and all the kind of books is being made available in these books & publication classifieds. These books & publication classifieds is available over net to increase the stretch as not many know about the print form of books & publications classifieds. But searching for them over net is easy. Locating book shops has always been a pain for the onlooker, but many book shops does not keep all the kind of books like academic books along with business reading books and fiction altogether and not many book shops have the facility of selling second hand books in new India. All these things are being made in the books & publication classifieds.

Many sales are also being noticed but there deadlines and other information are not known to many. Many sales are random and hard to locate. Books & publication classified has taken care of this as well. The books for sales column is being added to the classifieds to keep things at edge for the onlookers.The academic books at times have been scarce and getting them is been a helluva job, but books & publications classifieds made sure to mention all the sellers of academic books state wise. Not just this, many higher education students have a bend towards business reading books, for them also a different portal is being designed where they get an organized list of all the book shops that have such books. And second hand books, which many youngsters prefer to have for the leisure reading like reading fiction or novels is also being mentioned over other portals.

These books & publication classifieds made it easier for the onlookers and provide them an easier way to reach out to books and keep their passion for reading alive by making things available just at a finger stretch. These books & publications classifieds not only have the information but also have a review section and upcoming new books as well. This only helps readers get more knowledge about the new books on shelf and also about the rough storyline about the books so that they can buy the book according to their own needs and requirements.

Book Publication

While many debate about the end of the book publication industry as we know it (with everyone turning online),India still promises a booming publishing business. If you are a writer or consider becoming one in the near future, now is the time to get cracking.

Book publication isn’t as complex as it sounds, that is if you are committed of course. Over a million books are published world over every year, some successful, some hopeful. When you write a book, it is important to consider the genre you’d like to venture into. Also consider the language you want to write in; while English is a dominant medium, books are published in regional languages too.

The standard book publication process requires a completed manuscript to begin with. You must then send a proposal to a publisher of choice; some publishers do not consider material that has been sent to other publishers at the same time. Once you have mailed your proposal, you must wait.

Yes, that is the hardest part of all. Some publishers may take a mere four weeks while others may take a year to respond. Besides, you might also want to hire an agent to negotiate terms with the publisher. You are likely to receive a letter from the publisher, whether or not your manuscript is approved.

If it is approved however, you will be able to move on to the not-so-speedy stage of project development. At this time, all major and minor edits shall be made to your work. You will have to be in constant correspondence with the publisher, available for urgent requirements.

Publishers study the marketability of a project during the approval stage of book publication, but before they can move on, they also create a comprehensive marketing and distribution strategy. As a writer the wait could be frustrating but it is important to realize that publishing involves money and nobody signs up for a losing game.

Once illustrations, page layouts and back covers are finalized; the book will be printed and sold through various distribution channels. Writers usually receive royalties for their published works; you must read the contract clearly and pay attention to the finer points. Your agent will help you with this.

Book publication is a serious affair, although it might prove to be quite the adventure. Some authors are even signed on the basis of an unfinished manuscript but not everyone is that lucky. A gamble of sorts, writing can be quite gratifying. While money has its place in the book publication industry, good work will always make good money. So don’t just write what you think people want to read, pen down what you truly want to put out there.While many debate about the end of the book publication industry as we know it (with everyone turning online),India still promises a booming publishing business. If you are a writer or consider becoming one in the near future, now is the time to get cracking.

Book publication isn’t as complex as it sounds, that is if you are committed of course. Over a million books are published world over every year, some successful, some hopeful. When you write a book, it is important to consider the genre you’d like to venture into. Also consider the language you want to write in; while English is a dominant medium, books are published in regional languages too.

The standard book publication process requires a completed manuscript to begin with. You must then send a proposal to a publisher of choice; some publishers do not consider material that has been sent to other publishers at the same time. Once you have mailed your proposal, you must wait.

Yes, that is the hardest part of all. Some publishers may take a mere four weeks while others may take a year to respond. Besides, you might also want to hire an agent to negotiate terms with the publisher. You are likely to receive a letter from the publisher, whether or not your manuscript is approved.

If it is approved however, you will be able to move on to the not-so-speedy stage of project development. At this time, all major and minor edits shall be made to your work. You will have to be in constant correspondence with the publisher, available for urgent requirements.

Publishers study the marketability of a project during the approval stage of book publication, but before they can move on, they also create a comprehensive marketing and distribution strategy. As a writer the wait could be frustrating but it is important to realize that publishing involves money and nobody signs up for a losing game.

Once illustrations, page layouts and back covers are finalized; the book will be printed and sold through various distribution channels. Writers usually receive royalties for their published works; you must read the contract clearly and pay attention to the finer points. Your agent will help you with this.

Book publication is a serious affair, although it might prove to be quite the adventure. Some authors are even signed on the basis of an unfinished manuscript but not everyone is that lucky. A gamble of sorts, writing can be quite gratifying. While money has its place in the book publication industry, good work will always make good money. So don’t just write what you think people want to read, pen down what you truly want to put out there.

Italy’s Trinity Of Great Masters

Holidays in Italy will inevitably have at least some focus on the fantastic artwork that the country has produced. Known as the Trinity of Great Masters (and the three main characters in the Ninja Turtles), Raphael Sanzio, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci are responsible for much of the artwork Italy is so famous for today.

A luxury holiday in Italy will allow you to view the works of these artistic greats, and you can visit the cities where the artists created some of their most monumental works. From the Sistine Chapel to the Raphael rooms, a world of art created by geniuses awaits you. And with so many luxury hotels in Italy to choose from, you can have the best of both worlds, as you revel in luxury and experience artistic culture.

Raphael

Raphael Sanzio (usually just referred to by his first name) was born in 1483 in Umbria. While this city is small, it should not be written off the map when on holidays in Italy, as it has great artistic significance. Raphael’s father, Giovanni Santi, was court painter to the duke, leading to Raphael’s growing interest in art. His works evolved to be examples of grace and perfection, and he went on to become one of the greatest architects and painters of the High Renaissance period.

Italy holidays can take you to each of the cities in which Raphael spent time producing his masterpieces, as you explore both his artworks and the natural beauty and culture that inspired him. His life can be divided into three periods: Umbria, Florence and Rome. Each city has its own unique appeal, and is worth visiting when on a holiday in Italy.

The ‘Raphael Rooms’ are perhaps his most famous works, commissioned by Pope Julius II. When living in Rome, Raphael was commissioned to fresco the private library of the pope. His most famous piece was the first room he painted, known today as the Stanza della Signatura. It made a stunning impact on Roman art and is worth visiting on any Italy holiday.

Leonardo da Vinci

Da Vinci was born in 1452 in Florence as an illegitimate child to Piero da Vinci and a peasant called Caterina. His works have perhaps spurred more debate than any other artist, and he is considered a genius of his time. Holidays in Italy can see you travelling through the towns he spent significant time in: Rome, Bologna and Venice.

His most famous works are the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper, and his drawing of the Vitruvian Man is regarded as a cultural icon. Da Vinci has spurred recent debate, with Dan Brown’s the publication of The Da Vinci Code, a book which, amongst other things, looks at and analyses the mystery behind the painting of the Mona Lisa, linking it to much larger conspiracies. While the Mona Lisa itself is housed in the Louvre in Paris, an Italy holiday will give you insight into the world in which it was created, as well as the opportunity to see some of Da Vinci’s other works.

Michelangelo

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonorroti Simoni was born in 1475 in Caprese, near Tuscany. His life led him from Caprese to Florence as a young boy, and Rome as an adult. He lived for a while near the church of Santa Maria di Loreto, where he is rumoured to have fallen in love with the marquise of Pescara, Vittoria Colonna. On holiday in Rome, you can book a luxury Italy hotel, the perfect base from which to explore the history and genius of Michelangelo.

His two most famous works are the Statue of David and the Sistine Chapel Ceiling. Both were produced around the same time, with the completion of the fantastic marble statue being in 1804, and began work on the Sistine Chapel in 1805. The latter work took 4 years to complete, and commissioned under Pope Julius II, it is one of Italy’s most famous artworks. Its composition contains over three hundred characters, including 9 episodes from the Bible’s Book of Genesis, seven prophets of Israel and five sibyls (prophet women of the Roman classical world). Visiting this famous work of art is sure to be one of the highlights of any Italy holiday.

The History Of The Modern Library

The history of the modern library started thousands of years ago. Keeping important materials available for use has been a practice since written documents were created. In fact, there is evidence of library classification systems as far back as 1900 BC in Nippur. The libraries of the ancient world were the foundation for today’s modern library. The modern library operates on a complex library catalog system. Both hard-copy materials and digital materials are made available in the library, and all these materials need to be organized and cataloged properly and consistently. Appreciating how the modern library came into existence and how it operates takes some knowledge of its ancient ancestors.

Earliest Libraries

The earliest libraries were mostly private and consisted of important documents. Civil codes, laws, language guides, vocabulary lists, government and religious records, and myths and legends were the most common types of documents in early libraries. Many of these documents were written on stone tablets. Mesopotamia probably has the most evidence of early libraries, but very early libraries in China and other areas have also been discovered. Because most of the general population did not read or write, libraries were reserved for those who were highly educated. This would include the ruling classes and the most prominent religious and scientific minds. The remains of these ancient libraries have provided the world today with a wealth of information about the ancient world.

Great Ancient Libraries

The greatest and most famous library in the ancient world was the library of Alexandria in Egypt. The library was a great center of scholarship and was a prominent establishment throughout the Ptolemaic dynasty. There was even an early cataloging system at Alexandria. When Egypt was conquered by Rome in 30 BC, the library fell from prominence, but many of the records were fortunately preserved. In Greece, libraries really took off. Instead of simply institutional and government records, libraries in Greece had written books. Libraries began to pop up more frequently, and Rome established the first public libraries. Each Roman emperor tried to outshine his predecessor by creating a bigger and better library.

The first public library in Rome was created by Pollio during the time of Julius Caesar. Pollio, a famous lieutenant of Caesar’s, built the Anla Libertatis, a public library meant to rival the library at Alexandria. The design separated Greek and Latin texts from one another, a design which would be replicated in subsequent libraries. Libraries continued to be important throughout the middle ages, Renaissance, and neoclassical periods.

The Modern Library

In 1783 James Madison proposed creating the first congressional library. In 1876 the American Library Association was formed and Melvil Dewey established his decimal classification system. Public libraries had become increasingly numerous after the Civil War, due in large part to women’s clubs who donated their private collections and raised money to open public libraries. As the network of public libraries grew so did the number of materials housed in libraries. While classification systems had been in place for years, the system needed to get more complex as inventory grew and libraries operated together instead of as independent entities.

The modern library catalog system operates on multiple platforms. Most English speaking libraries use the MARC digital catalog system. While there is an automated and digital system, it still requires plenty of human involvement. Books are cataloged according to many different aspects, including author, genre, title, year of publication, edition, and others. It can be difficult for a library to keep up with all the cataloging needs. They often outsource cataloging to outside library services that can handle the metadata and keep the catalog updated.